Land Tenure in Latin America: from Land Reforms to Counter-Movement to Neoliberalism
von Bennewitz Álvarez, Eduardo Alfredo
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Latin America, with a Gini coefficient for land of 0.79, is the world's most unequal region in terms of land distribution. Land inequality is one of the greatest impediments to Latin American societies for achieving sustainable development and economic growth. Many studies have demonstrated how an unequal land concentration affects the quality of democracy and social cohesion and inhibits economic growth. Land is the main and in many cases the only asset for millions of rural households in the region and Land tenure can mean the difference between subsistence and extreme poverty. The present work reviews the agrarian reform processes that were experienced in part of Latin America and examines the impacts of the subsequent neoliberal reforms on land tenure, land and capital concentration. Finally it focuses on the need of a new distribution of land in order to achieve higher levels of Socio-Economic equality an also meet the Sustainable Development Goals in the region.