Acoustic properties and low strain rate behavior of different types of chocolate
MetadataShow full item record
Five different chocolate types (i.e. extra dark, dark, milk, white, and ruby) were characterized and compared for the acoustical and textural characteristics. Acoustic properties were described in terms of longitudinal and transversal wave velocities. These velocities were used for the evaluation of elastic constants namely Young modulus and Poisson ratio. The values of the Young moduli are significantly higher than those obtained using uniaxial compression and tensile tests. At the same time, the values of Poisson ratio are in reasonable agreement with results of these methods. Texture characteristics were evaluated using of the compression test at loading rates (crosshead velocity) 1, 10 and 100 mm/min. Results are presented in form of stress vs strain. The stress-strain dependences obtained from the compression test exhibited two different regions of the sensitivity of stress to the applied strain. The linear dependence stress- strain is taken as the evidence of the elastic behavior of the tested material. The extent of this region was given by the strain, which was the same for all tested chocolates. Its value increased with the loading rate. The stress-strain behavior in this region was only slightly dependent on the loading rate with exception of the ruby and dark chocolates. The stress-strain dependence in the following region was significantly dependent on the strain rate. Values of the strain rate sensitivity were evaluated. The order of the tested chocolates according to the values of stress at the given strain was identical with that obtained using of the elastic wave velocities.