Environmental Effects among Differently Located and Fertile Sites on Forest Basal-Area Increment in Temperate Zone
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Environmental properties differently influence the growth of forest tree species. The antagonistic effects of variable environmental properties classify the forest response according to various tree compositions among different sites. The division of the forest response was assessed in 52 stands arranged into 26 types of 13 site management populations (MPs) in 5 areas in the Czech Republic territory. The assessment was performed using time-series multiple regressions of basal-area increment from pure immature stands of Norway spruce (Picea abies), Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris), oaks (Quercus sp.), ash (Fraxinus excelsior) and willows (Salix sp.) dependent on the interpolated average temperatures, annual precipitation, atmospheric concentrations of SO2, NOx and O3 and soil properties over the period 1971-2008 at p < 0.05. Site MPs differentiated the forest response to a greater extent than tree species. The response of the forests was significantly distributed by means of the montane, upland and waterlogged sites. The multiple determination index (r2) GREATER-THAN OR EQUAL TO 0.6 indicated an adaptable tree increment but an interval of r2 between 0.80-0.92 implied forest sensitivity to variability in environmental properties on non-waterlogged sites. The index r2 < 0.6 suggested a fluctuating forest increment that reflects environmental variability inconsistently. The fluctuating increment most affected the spruce and pine stands grown from upland to submontane locations. Montane spruce stands, as well as rock pines, appeared to be one of the most sensitive ones to environmental change. Floodplain forests seemed as adaptable to variable environmental properties.