Interaction of the Nanoparticles and Plants in Selective Growth Stages-Usual Effects and Resulting Impact on Usage Perspectives
Tekielska, Dorota Anna
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Nanotechnologies have received tremendous attention since their discovery. The current studies show a high application potential of nanoparticles for plant treatments, where the general properties of nanoparticles such as their lower concentrations for an appropriate effects, the gradual release of nanoparticle-based nutrients or their antimicrobial effect are especially useful. The presented review, after the general introduction, analyzes the mechanisms that are described so far in the uptake and movement of nanoparticles in plants. The following part evaluates the available literature on the application of nanoparticles in the selective growth stage, namely, it compares the observed effect that they have when they are applied to seeds (nanopriming), to seedlings or adult plants. Based on the research that has been carried out, it is evident that the most common beneficial effects of nanopriming are the improved parameters for seed germination, the reduced contamination by plant pathogens and the higher stress tolerance that they generate. In the case of plant treatments, the most common applications are for the purpose of generating protection against plant pathogens, but better growth and better tolerance to stresses are also frequently observed. Hypotheses explaining these observed effects were also mapped, where, e.g., the influence that they have on photosynthesis parameters is described as a frequent growth-improving factor. From the consortium of the used nanoparticles, those that were most frequently applied included the principal components that were derived from zinc, iron, copper and silver. This observation implies that the beneficial effect that nanoparticles have is not necessarily based on the nutritional supply that comes from the used metal ions, as they can induce these beneficial physiological changes in the treated cells by other means. Finally, a critical evaluation of the strengths and weaknesses of the wider use of nanoparticles in practice is presented.