Urban Parks Hydrological Regime in the Context of Climate Change-A Case Study of Štěpánka Forest Park (Mladá Boleslav, Czech Republic)
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The paper presents the results of a case study that was prepared as a basis for decision-making processes in the context of the impacts of global climate change. The article is focused on a very important part of the urban environment, namely urban forests. When taking planning measures in periurban forests, two realities must always be addressed, i.e., adaptation measures to mitigate the effects of climate change on the forest complex in question and its use to mitigate the effects of climate change in its surroundings must both be considered. It is a well-known fact that forest communities (of any kind) are on the one hand affected by the impacts of climate change, but on the other hand are able to mitigate its effects on their surroundings. The case study was of land near the town of Mladá Boleslav. The aim was to analyse the hydrological regime of the Štěpánka Forest Park, nicknamed "the lungs of Mladá Boleslav". Modelling of the runoff coefficient was made for the whole park area, as well as for the part on the left bank of the Klenice River (forested part). The runoff conditions of the site and their subparameters are addressed in the study by comparing the current state with the modelled state after deforestation of the site, e.g., due to drought. As far as the spatial layout of the forest is concerned, it is absolutely essential to maintain an integrated stand on the site with a lower stem cover (fewer individuals per plot) and a lower regeneration period. These aspects of a growing matrix forest stand will ensure its sustainability, in particular the sustainable water management of the trees in the context of lower water reserves in the rhizosphere and the greater ability of younger individuals to adapt to changes in site conditions (replacement of stress-resistant types by resilient types).