Chicken Mesenchymal Stem Cells and Their Applications: A Mini Review
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Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multipotent progenitor cells that adhere to plastic; express the specific markers CD29, CD44, CD73, CD90, and CD105; and produce cytokines and growth factors supporting and regulating hematopoiesis. MSCs have capacity for differentiating into osteocytes, chondrocytes, adipocytes, and myocytes. They are useful for research toward better understanding the pathogenic potential of the infectious bursal disease virus, mineralization during osteogenesis, and interactions between MSCs as a feeder layer to other cells. MSCs are also important for immunomodulatory cell therapy, can provide a suitable strategy model for coculture with pathogens causing dermatitis disorders in chickens, can be cultured in vitro with probiotics and prebiotics with a view to eliminate the feeding of antibiotic growth promoters, and offer cell-based meat production. Moreover, bone marrow-derived MSCs (BM-MSCs) in coculture with hematopoietic progenitor/stem cells (HPCs/HSCs) can support expansion and regulation of the hematopoiesis process using the 3D-culture system in future research in chickens. MSCs' several advantages, including ready availability, strong proliferation, and immune modulatory properties make them a suitable model in the field of stem cell research. This review summarizes current knowledge about the general characterization of MSCs and their application in chicken as a model organism.