Immunomodulation of Avian Dendritic Cells under the Induction of Prebiotics
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Although the immunomodulatory properties of prebiotics were demonstrated many years ago in poultry, not all mechanisms of action are yet clear. Dendritic cells (DCs) are the main antigen-presenting cells orchestrating the immune response in the chicken gastrointestinal tract, and they are the first line of defense in the immune response. Despite the crucial role of DCs in prebiotic immunomodulatory properties, information is lacking about interaction between prebiotics and DCs in an avian model. Mannan-oligosaccharides, β-glucans, fructooligosaccharides, and chitosan-oligosaccharides are the main groups of prebiotics having immunomodulatory properties. Because pathogen-associated molecular patterns on these prebiotics are recognized by many receptors of DCs, prebiotics can mimic activation of DCs by pathogens. Short-chain fatty acids are products of prebiotic fermentation by microbiota, and their anti-inflammatory properties have also been demonstrated in DCs. This review summarizes current knowledge about avian DCs in the gastrointestinal tract, and for the first-time, their role in the immunomodulatory properties of prebiotics within an avian model.